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Indu Khurana Physiology Pdf
The cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of the body. The human body contains about 100 trillion cells. Different types of cells of the body possess features that distinguish one type from the other and are specially adapted to perform particular functions, e.g. the red blood cells
transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, the muscle cell is specialized for the function of contraction.
A typical cell, as seen by the light microscope, consists of three basic components: Cell membrane,
Cytoplasm and Nucleus.
The cell membrane or the plasma membrane is the protective sheath, enveloping the cell body. It separates the contents of the cell from the external environment. It controls the exchange of materials between the fluid outside the cell (extracellular fluid) and the fluid inside the cell (intracellular fluid).
A detailed knowledge of its structure (Fig. 1.2-1) is essential for the understanding of cell functions. Therefore, it will be discussed separately.
Cytoplasm is an aqueous substance (cytosol) containing a variety of cell organelles and other structures. The structures dispersed in the cytoplasm can be broadly divided into three groups: organelles, inclusion bodies, and cytoskeleton.
The organelles are the permanent components of the cells which are bounded by limiting membranes and contain enzymes and hence participate in the cellular metabolic activity.
Mitochondria are the primary sites for aerobic respiration. These are oval structures and more numerous in metabolically active cells.
Structure. The mitochondria consist of:
Membrane. There are two layers of the membrane. The outer smooth and inner fold into incomplete septa called cristae (Fig. 1.2-1A).
The Matrix of the mitochondria contains enzymes required in Krebs’ cycle by which products of carbohydrates, fat, and protein metabolism are oxidized to produce energy which is stored in the form of ATP in the lollipop-like globular structures.
Functions. In addition to their role as power-generating units, the mitochondria may have a role in synthesizing membrane-bound proteins since they also possess deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribosomes.
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|Pdf Book Name||Indu Khurana Physiology|
|Pdf Size||79.73 MB|
|Total Page||3781 Pages|
|Category||English Pdf Books|
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