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Biography Of Nelson Mandela Pdf
Nelson Mandela was a world-famous person. He fought for the freedom of the African community against the apartheid government in South Africa.
He was the third among his father’s 13 children. Mandela means ‘chief’ in the tribal language of Africa. Nelson Mandela’s Africa was the chieftain of Mbezo town and in the local language the son of the town chieftain is called Mandela, hence Nelson got the surname ‘Mandela’.
Nelson Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in Mbezo, Eastern Cape, in the Union of South Africa, to Gedla Henry Mphakeniswa and his third wife Nkufi Nsekeni.
Nelson Mandela was the third child of his father, Gedela Henry Mphakeniswa. Nelson Mandela was the first child of his mother Nosekeni. Nelson Mandela’s father was the tribal chief of Gedla Mbezo town.
In the local language, Sardar’s son is called Mandela. Nelson Mandela was given the first name ‘Rohihlala’ by his father, Gedla Henry Mphakeniswa, which means ‘troublemaker’ in the local Khoja language.
Nelson Mandela’s early education was completed from Clark Berry Missionary School and Nelson Mandela completed his further education from Methodist Missionary School. When Mandela was 12 years old, his father Gedla Henry Mphakeniswa died.
Nelson Mandela had three wives in his married life. He had six children from his three wives. Nelson Mandela married Elwyn Mace, the sister of his friend and colleague Walter Sisulu. The white government of Africa had filed a treason case against Nelson Mandela in 1961, but Nelson Mandela’s guilt could not be proven in the court and the court released him.
It was during the trial that Nelson Mandela met a woman named ‘Nomjamo Pini Madikijala’ who became Nelson Mandela’s second wife.
Nelson Mandela married a woman named Grace Meikle on his 80th birthday at the age of 80. Nelson Mandela took the path of law to fight against the white government. For this, he established a law firm.
The rise in popularity of Nelson Mandela after the establishment of the law firm in 1952 increased the concern of the white government.
The white government imposed a ban on Nelson Mandela and sent him out, accusing him of class discrimination. The white government had ordered that Nelson Mandela could not participate in any meeting anywhere. To escape government harassment, Nelson Mandela, along with his colleague Oliver, started Plan M’.
The symbolic meaning of ‘M’ was Mandela. In the plan against the government, it was decided that the work would be implemented by breaking the Congress into pieces by staying underground. Despite the ban, Nelson Mandela went to Clip Town, participated in the Congress function there, and cooperated with organizations that were fighting for the freedom of the black community.
Nelson Mandela’s support base was increasing against the repressive policies of the government. The apartheid government was making tireless efforts to break Nelson Mandela’s movement. During its cycle of repression, the government had made provisions for some laws that were against the interest of the black community. Nelson Mandela had strongly opposed such a law.
In the city of ‘Sharpville’, the police opened fire on the protesters opposing the law, due to which about 180 protesters died. Seeing this brutal cycle of repression by the government, Nelson Mandela lost faith in the non-violence movement.
Seeing the brutal atrocities of the government, the ANC declared an armed struggle. The name of the group fighting on behalf of the ANC organization was declared ‘Spear of the Nation’ and Nelson Mandela was made its president.
While the government was trying to destroy Nelson Mandela’s organization, an attempt was made to imprison Nelson Mandela, but to escape from the government’s captivity, Nelson Mandela went out of the country and reached Addis Ababa and started demanding his basic rights. Nelson Mandela received training in guerrilla techniques during his stay in Algeria and then traveled to London where he met Oliver Tampo again.
With the support of Oliver Tombaugh, Nelson Mandela along with the opposition parties of London tried to make the whole world aware of his views. The people of South Africa completely considered Nelson Mandela as the ‘Father of the Nation’. He was recognized among the people of South Africa as the ‘first founder of democracy’, the national liberator and savior.
Nelson Mandela first joined the African National Congress in 1943. Mandela again founded the ANC Youth and became its founder. In 1944, Nelson Mandela married a woman named Alvis Mace and became the father of three children, but in 1957, the relationship between Alvis Mace and Nelson Mandela broke up. After breaking up with Alvis Mays, Nelson Mandela passed the law degree and started practicing law in Johannis Square with his friend Oliver Tombaugh.
Tombo and Mandela together raised their voice against apartheid in South Africa. As a result, the government prosecuted Tombo and Mandela along with their supporters in 1956, but the government withdrew the case after four years. In 1956, Nelson Mandela married a woman named Madikizela for the second time. Madikizela made significant efforts to get Mandela released from prison.
The African government had declared a ban on the ANC organization in 1960. Nelson Mandela went underground to avoid arrest. Nelson Mandela started a campaign regarding the country’s economy, but the government accused Mandela of violent demonstrations and imprisoned him. Nelson Mandela expressed his views for democracy, freedom, and equality in his defense, but the cruel government sentenced Nelson Mandela to life imprisonment in 1964.
In 1962, Nelson Mandela was imprisoned by Africa’s apartheid government for encouraging the working class to strike and for leaving the country without the government’s permission. The government prosecuted Mandela and announced his life imprisonment on 12 July 1964. Mandela was sentenced to prison and sent to Raven Island prison, but Nelson Mandela’s enthusiasm did not diminish.
He started winning the black prisoners over to his side inside the jail itself. Nelson Mandela spent 27 years of his life in prison and was finally released from prison on 11 January 1990. After being released from jail, Nelson Mandela laid the foundation for a democratic and multi-ethnic Africa by adopting a policy of peace and compromise. After an agreement with the government of Nelson Mandela, a new South Africa was created in 1990.
In South Africa as well as throughout the world, Nelson Mandela was considered a symbol of anti-apartheid. Nelson Mandela was awarded the highest national honor ‘Bharat Ratna’ by the Government of India in 1990. Nelson Mandela’s birthday is recognized as an international day by the United Nations. Nelson Mandela was the first foreigner to be awarded India’s highest honor ‘Bharat Ratna’.
Nelson Mandela took office as the first black President of Africa on 10 May 1994. For Nelson Mandela’s unprecedented contribution to the anti-apartheid struggle, in November 2009, the United Nations Assembly declared Nelson Mandela’s birthday, July 18, as Mandela Day in his honor. In 2004, the Sandton Square Shopping Center at Johannes Square was renamed Nelson Mandela Square, and a statue of Nelson Mandela was installed there.
Nelson Mandela was addressed with ‘Madi’, a word of respect used for elders in South Africa, which shows respect for Nelson Mandela.
Nelson Mandela has been given more than 250 honors and awards during his lifetime by many institutions and countries of the world. To commemorate 67 years of involvement in the movement in South Africa, all Africans were urged to donate 67 minutes out of 24 hours to help others.
In the year 2009, the United Nations Assembly declared 18 July to be celebrated as ‘Mandela Day’ on Nelson Mandela’s birthday in honor of his contribution and contribution to the anti-apartheid movement.
Biography Of Nelson Mandela Pdf Download
|Full Name||Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela|
|Birth date||July 18, 1918|
|Death date||December 5, 2013 (age 95)|
|Net Worth||$4.1 million|
|Died||December 5, 2013, in Johannesburg, South Africa|
|Office||President of South Africa (1994-1999)|
|Awards and Honours||Nobel Prize (1993)|
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